Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program
SOW Report
Contract 55849: 2003-063-00 EXP REPRO SUCCESS ABERNATHY CREEK
Project Number:
Title:
Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington
Stage:
Complete
Area:
Province Subbasin %
Basinwide - 100.00%
Contract Number:
55849
Contract Title:
2003-063-00 EXP REPRO SUCCESS ABERNATHY CREEK
Contract Continuation:
Previous: Next:
51233: 200306300 EXP REPRO SUCCESS ABERNATHY CREEK
  • 59842: 2003-063-00 EXP REPRO SUCCESS ABERNATHY CREEK
Contract Status:
Closed
Contract Description:
Our goal is to determine the relative reproductive success of hatchery-origin and natural-origin steelhead and assess the demographic effects of hatchery fish supplementation in Abernathy Creek relative to two control streams. Currently the ability of hatchery-origin steelhead to reproduce successfully and contribute to the recovery of naturally spawning populations while minimizing genetic and ecological risks is unknown.

This project will evaluate relative reproductive success between hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead trout, simultaneously investigating methods of operating a conservation hatchery and the effectiveness of artificial production of an integrated NOR/HOR broodstock on recovery. This directly addresses 2008 NOAA Fisheries FCRPS Biological Opinion (NWF v. NMFS, Civ. No. CV 01-640-RE (D. Oregon)) reasonable and prudent alternatives (RPAs) 63.1, 64.1, and 64.2. The ability of HOR adults to reproduce successfully and contribute, via supplementation, to the recovery of naturally spawning steelhead populations is still a major uncertainty in the Pacific Northwest. This question has been debated intensively throughout the Columbia River Basin for over 10 years but remains unresolved. Additionally, the source of broodstock for supplementation programs may have negative genetic and ecological impacts on natural populations. The development of native broodstocks of hatchery steelhead may pose unacceptable biological risks to naturally spawning populations that are listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The traditional method of initiating new hatchery broodstock of anadromous salmonids is to trap adults during their spawning migration. However, removing NOR adults from ESA listed populations may not be biologically acceptable because such activities may further depress those populations. Also, trapping large numbers of adult steelhead may not be feasible in many subbasins because high water in the spring during steelhead migrations often destroys temporary weirs. As a result, alternative methods for developing broodstocks from NOR steelhead are highly desired.

This project provides an assessment of an alternative method of establishing a native salmonid broodstock when large numbers of native adults are unavailable, a common issue for the establishment of conservation hatcheries. Abernathy Fish Technology Center (AFTC) developed an integrated NOR/HOR steelhead broodstock starting with pre-smolt NOR juveniles collected from Abernathy Creek that were reared to sexual maturity in a hatchery. Broodstock programs developed through juvenile collections have the advantage of increasing the genetic effective population size by potentially incorporating the offspring of all adults that spawn successfully within a stream or watershed.  In turn, greater genetic effective population size of the hatchery stock reduces the risk of genetically “swamping” the natural spawning population with a few over-represented families. In order to minimize genetic differences between NOR and HOR steelhead, we will continue to utilize captured NOR steelhead to maintain an integrated NOR/HOR broodstock. To achieve our goal of evaluating relative reproductive success, all NOR and HOR upstream-migrating adults will continue to be genotyped and samples of their NOR offspring will be identified via parentage analyses.

While our results to date comparing the relative reproductive success within Abernathy Creek are based on parentage assignment for juveniles, continuation of this work will provide the opportunity to compare the adult to smolt relative reproductive success of HOR and NOR parents to adult to adult reproductive success.  Our renewed focus on strict adherence to spawning protocols will allow us to assess our ability to maintain genetic similarity between the HOR and NOR components of the Abernathy Creek steelhead population and correct the effects of previously using a small proportion of NOR broodstock in the hatchery.  Beginning this project year, we are also increasing our efforts to control access of ungenotyped adults above the AFTC weir and to collect a larger proportion of the NOR offspring.  Genetic effects in addition to juvenile steelhead production and adult returns occurring within Abernathy Creek will be compared to two control streams (i.e. Germany and Mill creeks).  New this project year in response to a recommendation by the Independent Scientific Review Group will be a validation carried out in Abernathy Creek of redd survey counts that are used to estimate adult returns (Objective 9, to be completed under contract with Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife).  Additionally, we are assessing demographic changes and behavioral and physiological differences between HOR and NOR steelhead to evaluate the supplementation program.  Assignment of adult progeny will also allow us to assess correlations in biological characteristics (e.g. physiological traits, run timing, return size and age) between parents and returning adult offspring.  Determining the relative reproductive success of individual HOR and NOR adults coupled with monitoring demographic changes in population abundance along with behavioral and physiological differences, with appropriate natural population controls, is critical to assessment of artificial production in conservation hatcheries.


OBJECTIVES
Objective  1. Maintain a conservation hatchery broodstock of steelhead using protocols to minimize effects of artificial rearing on an integrated broodstock.
Objective  2. Use selectively-neutral, DNA markers to determine the amount of genetic change associated with captive rearing of NOR steelhead.
Objective  3. Estimate total annual smolt emigration and behavior of steelhead in Abernathy, Germany, and Mill creeks.
Objective  4. Assess physiological status of HOR and NOR steelhead smolts.
Objective  5. Control passage of HOR and NOR for evaluation of relative reproductive success; retain some steelhead for conservation hatchery broodstock.
Objective  6. Develop conservation hatchery broodstock of steelhead that is genetically integrated.
Objective  7. Determine the relative, natural reproductive success of hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead in Abernathy Creek above Abernathy Fish Technology Center.
Objective  8. Manage and administer project and communicate work and results to BPA and the scientific community.
Objective  9. Validate steelhead redd count surveys.
Account Type(s):
Expense
Contract Start Date:
01/01/2012
Contract End Date:
12/31/2012
Current Contract Value:
$581,422
Expenditures:
$581,422

* Expenditures data includes accruals and are based on data through 31-May-2021.

BPA CO:
BPA COTR:
Env. Compliance Lead:
Work Order Task(s):
Contract Type:
Contract (IGC)
Pricing Method:
Cost Reimbursement (CNF)
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Viewing of Work Statement Elements

Deliverable Title WSE Sort Letter, Number, Title Start End Complete
Obtain NEPA documents A: 165. NEPA 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Rear an integrated steelhead broodstock using protocols to minimize effects of artificial rearing B: 176. Rear an integrated steelhead broodstock using protocols to minimize effects of artificial rearing 05/31/2012 05/31/2012
Maintain fish culture facilities C: 61. Maintain fish culture facilities 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Hatchery Genetic Management Plan for Abernathy Creek steelhead D: 174. Update hatchery genetic management plan 09/30/2012 09/30/2012
Collect data about an integrated steelhead broodstock reared from fertilization to release E: 157. Collect data about an integrated steelhead broodstock reared from fertilization to release 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Determine multilocus DNA genotypes for HOR & NOR smolts F: 157. Collect samples from HOR steelhead smolts; determine multi-locus DNA genotypes for HOR & NOR smolts 11/30/2012 11/30/2012
Estimate genetic change for an integrated steelhead broodstock G: 162. Estimate genetic change for an integrated steelhead broodstock 11/30/2012 11/30/2012
Tag NOR/HOR steelhead juveniles; collect and store biological data/genetic samples H: 158. Tag NOR/HOR steelhead juveniles; collect and store biological data/genetic samples 10/31/2012 10/31/2012
Monitor NOR/HOR steelhead emigration; collect & store biological/physiological/genetic data, samples I: 157. Monitor NOR/HOR steelhead emigration; collect & store biological/physiological/genetic data, samples 05/31/2012 05/31/2012
Estimate NOR/HOR steelhead emigration and production using information from marked/recaptured smolts J: 162. Estimate NOR/HOR steelhead emigration and production using information from marked/recaptured smolts 11/30/2012 11/30/2012
Purchase/install/maintain upgraded equipment for 3 PIT tag arrays; transfer PIT tag data to database K: 70. Purchase/install/maintain upgraded equipment for 3 PIT tag arrays; transfer PIT tag data to database 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Evaluate physiological status for juvenile NOR/HOR steelhead to evaluate readiness to emigrate L: 157. Evaluate physiological status for juvenile NOR/HOR steelhead to evaluate readiness to emigrate 09/30/2012 09/30/2012
Collect tissues from adult female steelhead/their offspring; evaluate offspring condition/quality M: 157. Collect tissues from adult female steelhead/their offspring; evaluate offspring condition/quality 09/30/2012 09/30/2012
Perform statistical comparisons between NOR/HOR steelhead smolts for physiological parameters N: 162. Perform statistical comparisons between NOR/HOR steelhead smolts for physiological parameters 09/30/2012 09/30/2012
Capture adult HOR/NOR steelhead; release some above weir; retain some for integrated broodstock O: 157. Capture adult HOR/NOR steelhead; release some above weir; retain some for integrated broodstock 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Calculate smolt-adult return rate for the integrated conservation hatchery steelhead broodstock P: 162. Calculate smolt-adult return rate for the integrated conservation hatchery steelhead broodstock 10/31/2012 10/31/2012
Spawn HOR/NOR steelhead returning to AFTC using protocols to maximize broodstock integration Q: 176. Spawn HOR/NOR steelhead returning to AFTC using protocols to maximize broodstock integration 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Collect biological data, genetic samples from all HOR/NOR R: 157. Collect biological data, genetic samples from all HOR/NOR steelhead used for broodstock 06/30/2012 06/30/2012
Determine multilocus, microsat. nuclear DNA genotypes for NOR/HOR adult/juvenile steelhead sampled S: 157. Determine multilocus, microsat. nuclear DNA genotypes for NOR/HOR adult/juvenile steelhead sampled 11/30/2012 11/30/2012
Determine the relative reproductive success of NOR and HOR steelhead in Abernathy Creek above AFTC T: 162. Determine the relative reproductive success of NOR and HOR steelhead in Abernathy Creek above AFTC 11/30/2012 11/30/2012
Submit draft Funding Package - to COTR U: 119. Submit draft Funding Package - to COTR 10/01/2012 10/01/2012
Submit Progress Report for the period (JAN 2012) to (DEC 2012) V: 132. Submit Progress Report for the period (JAN 2012) to (DEC 2012) 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Disseminate results through presentations at professional meetings, conferences, and workshops X: 161. Disseminate results through presentations at professional meetings, conferences, and workshops 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Write papers and submit to peer reviewed journals for publication. Y: 183. Write papers and submit to peer reviewed journals for publication. 12/31/2012 12/31/2012
Collect tag, sex, weight, and length data from migrating adult steelhead; sample scales/fin clips Z: 157. Collect tag, sex, weight, and length data from migrating adult steelhead; sample scales/fin clips 11/30/2012 11/30/2012
Compare number of adult steelhead to redds; determine demographic information for steelhead AA: 162. Compare number of adult steelhead to redds; determine demographic information for steelhead 11/30/2012 11/30/2012

Viewing of Implementation Metrics
Viewing of Environmental Metrics Customize

Primary Focal Species Work Statement Elements
Steelhead (O. mykiss) - Lower Columbia River DPS (Threatened)
  • 2 instances of WE 176 Produce Hatchery Fish
  • 1 instance of WE 61 Maintain Artificial Production Facility/Infrastructure
  • 1 instance of WE 174 Produce Plan
  • 1 instance of WE 183 Produce Journal Article
  • 1 instance of WE 70 Install Fish Monitoring Equipment
  • 9 instances of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
  • 1 instance of WE 158 Mark/Tag Animals
  • 1 instance of WE 161 Disseminate Raw/Summary Data and Results
  • 6 instances of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data

Sort WE ID WE Title NEPA NOAA USFWS NHPA Has Provisions Inadvertent Discovery Completed
A 165 NEPA 01/01/2012
B 176 Rear an integrated steelhead broodstock using protocols to minimize effects of artificial rearing 01/01/2012
C 61 Maintain fish culture facilities 01/01/2012
D 174 Update hatchery genetic management plan 01/01/2012
E 157 Collect data about an integrated steelhead broodstock reared from fertilization to release 01/01/2012
F 157 Collect samples from HOR steelhead smolts; determine multi-locus DNA genotypes for HOR & NOR smolts 01/01/2012
G 162 Estimate genetic change for an integrated steelhead broodstock 01/01/2012
H 158 Tag NOR/HOR steelhead juveniles; collect and store biological data/genetic samples 01/01/2012
I 157 Monitor NOR/HOR steelhead emigration; collect & store biological/physiological/genetic data, samples 01/01/2012
J 162 Estimate NOR/HOR steelhead emigration and production using information from marked/recaptured smolts 01/01/2012
K 70 Purchase/install/maintain upgraded equipment for 3 PIT tag arrays; transfer PIT tag data to database 01/01/2012
L 157 Evaluate physiological status for juvenile NOR/HOR steelhead to evaluate readiness to emigrate 01/01/2012
M 157 Collect tissues from adult female steelhead/their offspring; evaluate offspring condition/quality 01/01/2012
N 162 Perform statistical comparisons between NOR/HOR steelhead smolts for physiological parameters 01/01/2012
O 157 Capture adult HOR/NOR steelhead; release some above weir; retain some for integrated broodstock 01/01/2012
P 162 Calculate smolt-adult return rate for the integrated conservation hatchery steelhead broodstock 01/01/2012
Q 176 Spawn HOR/NOR steelhead returning to AFTC using protocols to maximize broodstock integration 01/01/2012
R 157 Collect biological data, genetic samples from all HOR/NOR steelhead used for broodstock 01/01/2012
S 157 Determine multilocus, microsat. nuclear DNA genotypes for NOR/HOR adult/juvenile steelhead sampled 01/01/2012
T 162 Determine the relative reproductive success of NOR and HOR steelhead in Abernathy Creek above AFTC 01/01/2012
U 119 Submit draft Funding Package - to COTR 01/01/2012
V 132 Submit Progress Report for the period (JAN 2012) to (DEC 2012) 01/01/2012
W 185 Periodic Status Reports for BPA 01/01/2012
X 161 Disseminate results through presentations at professional meetings, conferences, and workshops 01/01/2012
Y 183 Write papers and submit to peer reviewed journals for publication. 01/01/2012
Z 157 Collect tag, sex, weight, and length data from migrating adult steelhead; sample scales/fin clips 01/01/2012
AA 162 Compare number of adult steelhead to redds; determine demographic information for steelhead 01/01/2012