Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program
SOW Report
Contract 46804: 2002-031-00 EXP UW GROWTH MODULATION IN SALMON SUPPLEMENTATION
Project Number:
Title:
Growth Modulation in Salmon Supplementation
Stage:
Implementation
Area:
Province Subbasin %
Columbia Plateau Yakima 100.00%
Contract Number:
46804
Contract Title:
2002-031-00 EXP UW GROWTH MODULATION IN SALMON SUPPLEMENTATION
Contract Continuation:
Previous: Next:
42471: 2002-031-00 EXP UW GROWTH MODULATION IN SALMON SUPPLEMENTATION
  • 53041: 2002-031-00 EXP GROWTH MODULATION IN SALMON SUPPLEMENTATION
Contract Status:
Closed
Contract Description:
Growth Rate Modulation in spring Chinook salmon supplementation
Statement of Work and Budget FY2010

A major focus of current actions under Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) programs is the support of 12 supplementation programs to assist in recovery of 8 ESUs of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA.   A significant concern for these programs is that they release fish that are ecologically, genetically, and phenotypically similar to their wild cohorts.  In response to this concern, a number of rearing guidelines for supplementation programs have been made in the Artificial Production Review and Evaluation report (APRE).  
Under the initial portion of this project (Growth modulation in salmon supplementation, BPA # 200203100) we have undertaken perhaps the most extensive evaluation of a supplementation program with regard to these APRE rearing guidelines.  We have found that spring Chinook salmon released from the Yakima River spring Chinook salmon supplementation program differ substantially from wild spring Chinook salmon in the same river, even though fish released from this program originate from Wild Yakima River spring Chinook salmon broodstock.  Specifically, 20-50% of putative male smolts were actually destined to mature at age 2, a proportion 2-5-fold greater than we have found in wild fish in the Yakima River (Larsen et al. 2004).  This relatively high rate of early male maturation represents a direct loss of potentially returning anadromous adults.  These early maturing males also introduce a novel ecological presence into the Yakima and Columbia River as many of them residualize over the summer rather than migrate to the ocean.  Perhaps of greater significance, the majority of these males appear to be lost from the breeding population, since few early maturing males of hatchery origin are found near the redds of spawning adult anadromous fish.  If no early maturing males successfully breed, a potentially potent artificial selection regime is set-up because there is a well-documented relationship between growth and early maturation of males and almost all fast-growing juvenile males could be lost as potential breeders.  Finally, the production of high proportions of early maturing males may result in altered gender ratios on spawning grounds when anadromous adults return.  We have found out-migrating hatchery smolts are biased towards females (55 - 70% 02 - 05) (Larsen et al. 2005).  Studies, to date, demonstrate that hatchery growth profiles are not well matched to that of wild fish, suggesting that hatchery rearing practices are a key component of the altered life-history pattern we have observed (Larsen et al. 2006).  
We suggest that the Yakima Program is not novel with regard to the presence of high rates of precocious male maturation; rather, it is novel in actually assessing its' program with regard to APRE standards.  Preliminary data, based upon PIT-tag detections of age 2 maturing males in ladders at Columbia River dams, suggests early male maturation is wide-spread in supplementation programs in the Columbia River Basin (Beckman and Larsen 2005).  Based upon these findings the central objectives of this statement of work are the following:
1). Complete a 7 year study exploring growth and life-history variation among wild Yakima River juvenile Chinook salmon in our continued effort to building a wild-fish template for the rearing of fish in the Yakima River Supplementation Program and other Chinook salmon supplementation programs in the Basin.
2). Continue monitoring fish produced in the Yakima supplementation program to assess how changing hatchery practices (ponding date, growth rate, release strategy) and potential domestication may affect population demographics includinng early male maturation.
3). Continue to explore how environmental variation (temperature, feeding rate, emergence timing) and genotype affect the expression of early male maturation and other significant life-history traits in controlled laboratory experiments, to further develop fundamental biological information regarding factors modulating life-history expression in Chinook salmon.
4)  Assess early male maturation and altered life-history patterns in other select hatchery programs in the Columbia River Basin where access is possible.

Taken together the work put forth by this statement of work will address these objectives by continuing to monitor the extent of this problem at both the Yakima and Columbia Basin wide level, design rearing strategies for use in salmon hatcheries throughout the basin and test the success of implementation of these innovative technologies at the hatchery production scale.

There are two contracts (University of Washington and NOAA ) under this project.  There are many duties associated with this project that are shared between the two contracts and they are noted in the description for specific work elements. In general, the University of Washington Contract is associated with data collection, fish rearing, maintaining hatchery, and laboratory sample analysis and the NOAA contract is used for work elements associated with permit preparation, experimental design, collaborator coordination, fish rearing and maintaining hatchery also, contract reporting, data collection, interpretation, analysis, and peer reviewed publication and presentation of results to the scientific community.

References
Larsen, D.A., Beckman, B.R., Strom, C.R., Parkins, P.J., Cooper, K.A., Fast, D.E., and Dickhoff, W.W.  (2006). Growth modulation alters the incidence of early male maturation and physiological development of hatchery reared spring Chinook salmon: a comparison with wild fish.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 135 1017-1032.
Beckman, B.R. and Larsen D.A.  (2005). Up-stream migration of minijack (age-2) Chinook salmon in the Columbia River:  behavior, abundance, distribution, and origin Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:1520-1541.
Larsen, D.A., Beckman, B.R., Strom, C., Parkins, P., Cooper, K.A., Johnston, M., Fast, D., and Dickhoff, W.W.  (2005).  Growth rate modulation in spring Chinook salmon supplementation.  U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA Report DOE/BP-00017450-1)  49pp.
Larsen, D.A., Beckman, B.R., Cooper, K.A., Barrett, D., Johnston, M., Swanson, P., and Dickhoff, W.W.  (2004).  Assessment of high rates of precocious male maturation in a spring Chinook salmon supplementation hatchery program.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.  133, 98-120.
Account Type(s):
Expense
Contract Start Date:
06/01/2010
Contract End Date:
05/31/2011
Current Contract Value:
$119,900
Expenditures:
$119,900

* Expenditures data includes accruals and are based on data through 31-Oct-2022.

Env. Compliance Lead:
Contract Contractor:
Work Order Task(s):
Contract Type:
Contract (IGC)
Pricing Method:
Cost Reimbursement (CNF)
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Full Name Organization Write Permission Contact Role Email Work Phone
Walton Dickhoff National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration No Supervisor walton.w.dickhoff@noaa.gov (206) 860-3234
Donald Larsen National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Yes Contract Manager don.larsen@noaa.gov (206) 860-3462
Peter Lofy Bonneville Power Administration Yes F&W Approver ptlofy@bpa.gov (503) 230-4193
Jay Marcotte Bonneville Power Administration Yes COTR jgmarcotte@bpa.gov (503) 230-3943
Jessica Roshan University of Washington No Administrative Contact jroshan@uw.edu (206) 616-9521
Kimberly Upham Bonneville Power Administration No Interested Party kaupham@bpa.gov (503) 230-3196
Kristi Van Leuven Bonneville Power Administration No Contracting Officer kjvleuven@bpa.gov (503) 230-3605
Nancy Weintraub Bonneville Power Administration No Env. Compliance Lead nhweintraub@bpa.gov (503) 230-5373


Viewing of Work Statement Elements

Deliverable Title WSE Sort Letter, Number, Title Start End Complete
Environmental Compliance B: 165. Environmental Compliance 04/30/2011 04/30/2011
Multiyear analysis of early male maturation rates in wild Yakima Spring Chinook C: 162. Analyze precocious maturation rate of wild Yakima spring Chinook salmon 05/31/2011
Yakima hatchery pre-release precocious maturity screening D: 157. Estimate precocious maturation rate of Yakima hatchery spring Chinook salmon 03/11/2011 03/11/2011
Plasma analysis for plasma 11-ketotestosterone E: 162. Laboratory analysis of plasma samples 05/13/2011 05/13/2011
Growth rate modulation sample collection F: 157. Growth rate modulation experiment #5 05/31/2011 05/31/2011
Rear hatchery fish for Growth Modulation Experiment #5 G: 176. Rear hatchery fish for growth modulation experiment #5 05/31/2011 05/31/2011
Maintain hatchery for rearing fish for growth modulation experiment #5 H: 61. Maintain NWSFC hatchery for rearing fish growth experiment #5 studies 05/31/2011 05/31/2011
Growth rate modulation experiments database and graphics management I: 162. Analysis for growth rate modulation experiment #5 05/31/2011 05/31/2011
Columbia River hatchery monitoring J: 157. Columbia River hatchery precocious maturation monitoring 04/22/2011 04/22/2011
Columbia River hatcheries-plasma 11-KT analysis K: 162. Analysis for Columbia River hatchery precocious maturation screening 05/31/2011 05/31/2011
Project Management M: 119. Project planning and coordination 05/31/2011 05/31/2011

Viewing of Implementation Metrics
Viewing of Environmental Metrics Customize

Primary Focal Species Work Statement Elements
Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) - All Populations
  • 1 instance of WE 61 Maintain Artificial Production Facility/Infrastructure
  • 1 instance of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
  • 1 instance of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data
Chinook (O. tshawytscha) - Mid-Columbia River Spring ESU
  • 1 instance of WE 176 Produce Hatchery Fish
  • 2 instances of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
  • 3 instances of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data
Chinook (O. tshawytscha) - Upper Columbia River Spring ESU (Endangered)
  • 1 instance of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
  • 1 instance of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data
Chinook (O. tshawytscha) - Upper Columbia River Summer/Fall ESU
  • 1 instance of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
  • 1 instance of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data

Sort WE ID WE Title NEPA NOAA USFWS NHPA Has Provisions Inadvertent Discovery Completed
A 185 Periodic Status Reports for BPA 06/01/2010
B 165 Environmental Compliance 06/01/2010
C 162 Analyze precocious maturation rate of wild Yakima spring Chinook salmon 06/01/2010
D 157 Estimate precocious maturation rate of Yakima hatchery spring Chinook salmon 06/01/2010
E 162 Laboratory analysis of plasma samples 06/01/2010
F 157 Growth rate modulation experiment #5 06/01/2010
G 176 Rear hatchery fish for growth modulation experiment #5 02/05/2010
H 61 Maintain NWSFC hatchery for rearing fish growth experiment #5 studies 06/01/2010
I 162 Analysis for growth rate modulation experiment #5 06/01/2010
J 157 Columbia River hatchery precocious maturation monitoring 06/01/2010
K 162 Analysis for Columbia River hatchery precocious maturation screening 06/01/2010
L 132 Submit work on Progress Report to NOAA for the period June 2009 to May 2010 06/01/2010
M 119 Project planning and coordination 06/01/2010