Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program
SOW Report
Contract 72482: 1995-063-25 EXP YKFP-WDFW YAKIMA RIVER MONITORING & EVALUATION
Project Number:
Title:
Yakima River Monitoring and Evaluation-Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)
Stage:
Implementation
Area:
Province Subbasin %
Columbia Plateau Yakima 100.00%
Contract Number:
72482
Contract Title:
1995-063-25 EXP YKFP-WDFW YAKIMA RIVER MONITORING & EVALUATION
Contract Continuation:
Previous: Next:
69084: 1995-063-25 EXP YKFP-WDFW YAKIMA RIVER MONITORING AND EVALUATION
  • 75796: 1995-063-25 EXP YFKP-WDFW YAKIMA RIVER MONITORING & EVALUAT
Contract Status:
Closed
Contract Description:
The YKFP is a joint project of the Yakama Nation (lead entity) and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife and is sponsored in large part by the Bonneville Power Administration with oversight and guidance from the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). The YKFP experimental design for the supplementation research and Coho reintroduction feasibility projects was developed in 1996.  We propose to continue to test whether new artificial production techniques, coupled with strategic habitat actions, can be used to increase harvest and natural production of Yakima Basin spring Chinook while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the population being supplemented and keeping adverse genetic and ecological interactions with non-target species or stocks within acceptable limits. We propose to evaluate the domesticating effects of supplementation, and compare the intensity of domestication incurred under supplementation as practiced in the YKFP spring chinook program to a wild control line and to that incurred under a more conventional regime of continuous hatchery culture. The experimental designs are adjusted periodically based on the results of the M&E activities. The project is also designed to provide knowledge about supplementation so that it may be used to mitigate effects on anadromous fisheries throughout the Columbia River Basin.

Before the ocean and lower Columbia exploitation of salmon and steelhead in the late 19th century and early 20th century, and before the Yakima River valley was developed, the Yakima Subbasin supported large runs of spring, summer and fall Chinook, summer steelhead, coho and sockeye.  Historic spring Chinook returns to the Yakima were likely in the range of 202,500 (Mullan 1983) to approximately 250,000 fish (Smoker 1956).  Cumulative effects from the disruption of the Yakima Subbasin ecosystem functions and processes, out of subbasin impacts, and harvest of salmon have resulted in a significant decline of fish and wildlife abundance from historic levels.  Presently, adult salmon and steelhead returns to the Yakima River are approximately two orders of magnitude lower than estimated historic returns.  The significant decrease in abundance of these fish is mirrored on the terrestrial landscape.  Though abundance data is limited for the terrestrial focal species, many important wildlife habitats have been significantly constricted and degraded (YSFWPB 2004a), thus limiting the population potential of wildlife that depend on these habitats.  At the most general levels, the main habitat factors in focal species’ decline within this subbasin are the loss of key habitat quantity, quality, and diversity (YSFWPB 2004a).

Meaningful restoration of salmon and steelhead runs in the Columbia Basin ultimately requires a return to “normative” conditions throughout the basin (Williams et al., 1996), or at least to a much more normative state.  Because of the enormous societal obstacles and economic costs that constrain it, such an effort will take decades to implement and additional decades to take effect. Therefore, mitigation measures such as supplementation will likely be required for the foreseeable future to meet federal treaty trust and other obligations embodied in the FWP (BPA 1996).  Ultimately, the YKFP will comprise a series of complimentary habitat restoration and supplementation/reintroduction projects targeting all species historically present in the subbasin.

Research, monitoring and evaluation activities are necessary to develop information to make decisions regarding salmon and steelhead stock protection and restoration objectives in the Yakima Basin.  The YKFP is using adaptive management to guide Project decisions.  Adaptive management requires the development and analysis of information regarding performance of strategies and methods.  

Supplementation is being pursued as a key strategy for stock enhancement and restoration throughout the Columbia Basin.  As defined by RASP (1991), supplementation is “the use of artificial propagation in an attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining long-term fitness of the target population and keeping ecological and genetic impacts to non-target species within specified limits”.  The Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2005-15) stated, “The critical uncertainties are whether supplementation provides a demographic increase in natural production (the potential benefit) and whether supplementation leads to decreased natural-spawning fitness (the potential harm) in the integrated population.  Supplementation entails demographic, genetic (fitness), ecological, and disease risks.”  This Project is designed to evaluate these uncertainties and risks.  The results of the monitoring and evaluation activities in the Yakima subbasin will be useful for evaluation, design, development and implementation of supplementation programs elsewhere in the Columbia Basin.  However, as noted in the Yakima Subbasin Management Supplement (YSFWPB 2004b, p. 36), the use of supplementation will not, by itself, create a sustainable, naturally-producing population of salmonids in a watershed where the indigenous wild population has been diminished or extirpated.  Habitat quality is the sole determinant of natural population productivity and sustainability.  If supplementation ceases without changing the underlying habitat conditions that required its use in the first place, the remaining, unsupplemented, naturally-producing population will be expected to resume the decline that was apparent before the application of supplementation.  Only adequate habitat quality can ensure the long-term viability of unsupplemented, naturally-producing populations.  The related YKFP Management, Data, and Habitat proposal (198812025) includes objectives and strategies for addressing habitat projects.

With respect to the significance of the Project to regional programs, the research, monitoring and evaluation activities are important to achievement of the fisheries mitigation requirements that are required by the Northwest Power Act (NPA) and implemented through the FWP and subbasin plan.  The fisheries mitigation requirements have framed the historical monitoring and evaluation activities in the Yakima Basin. The proposed activities are also aligned with current NPCC efforts to increase the regional effectiveness of research, monitoring and evaluation activities.
Account Type(s):
Expense
Contract Start Date:
05/01/2016
Contract End Date:
04/30/2017
Current Contract Value:
$1,099,685
Expenditures:
$1,099,685

* Expenditures data includes accruals and are based on data through 30-Apr-2022.

BPA CO:
Env. Compliance Lead:
Work Order Task(s):
Contract Type:
Contract (IGC)
Pricing Method:
Cost Reimbursement (CNF)
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Viewing of Work Statement Elements

Deliverable Title WSE Sort Letter, Number, Title Start End Complete
M&E Annual Report 1/1/2016 to 12/31/2016 B: 132. Yakima Basin M&E Annual Report 2016 03/15/2017 04/14/2017
EC Coordination C: 165. Participate in ESA/NEPA Compliance for Yakima Basin M&E 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
All data collected, validated and appropriately stored in WDFW Olympia & Ellensburg computers. D: 157. Yakima Juvenile Spring Chinook Habitat Saturation and Limiting Factors 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
Analysis and interpretation of habitat saturation and limiting factors data E: 162. Analyze Spring Chinook Habitat Saturation and Limiting Factors 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
All data collected, validated and appropriately stored in WDFW Olympia & Ellensburg computers. F: 157. Yakima Spring Chinook Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
Analyze Residual/Precocious Male Data G: 162. Analyze Spring Chinook Residual/Precocious Males 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
All data collected, validated and appropriately stored in WDFW Olympia & Ellensburg computers. H: 157. Domestication Selection Research in the Yakima River Basin 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
Analyze Domestication Selection data I: 162. Analyze Domestication Selection Data 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
Analyze and interpret genetic samples and age of fish from scales J: 162. Genetics and Scale Lab Support for M&E in the Yakima River Basin 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
All data collected, validated and appropriately stored in WDFW Olympia and Ellensburg computer K: 157. Ecological Interactions M&E in the Yakima River Basin 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
Analyze Ecological Interactions data L: 162. Analyze Ecological Interactions Data 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
Peer reviewed publications M: 183. Yakima Basin M&E Peer-Reviewed Publications 04/30/2017 11/08/2016
All administrative tasks fulfilled with timely quality products N: 119. Manage and Administer Yakima Basin M&E 04/30/2017 04/28/2017
PIT tag juvenile salmonids in select locations O: 158. PIT tag juvenile O. mykiss 10/31/2016 10/31/2016
Produce accessible, error-checked datasets P: 157. Operate PIT tag detector array 04/30/2017 04/28/2017

Viewing of Implementation Metrics
Viewing of Environmental Metrics Customize

Primary Focal Species Work Statement Elements
Chinook (O. tshawytscha) - Mid-Columbia River Spring ESU
  • 5 instances of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
  • 5 instances of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data
Chinook (O. tshawytscha) - Upper Columbia River Summer/Fall ESU
  • 1 instance of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data
Coho (O. kisutch) - Unspecified Population
  • 1 instance of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data
Steelhead (O. mykiss) - Middle Columbia River DPS (Threatened)
  • 1 instance of WE 183 Produce Journal Article
  • 2 instances of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
  • 1 instance of WE 158 Mark/Tag Animals
  • 2 instances of WE 162 Analyze/Interpret Data
Cutthroat Trout, Westslope (O. c. lewisi)
  • 1 instance of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
Trout, Bull (S. confluentus) (Threatened)
  • 1 instance of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data
Trout, Rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • 1 instance of WE 183 Produce Journal Article
  • 2 instances of WE 157 Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data

Sort WE ID WE Title NEPA NOAA USFWS NHPA Has Provisions Inadvertent Discovery Completed
A 185 Periodic Status Reports for BPA 05/01/2016
B 132 Yakima Basin M&E Annual Report 2016 05/01/2016
C 165 Participate in ESA/NEPA Compliance for Yakima Basin M&E 05/01/2016
D 157 Yakima Juvenile Spring Chinook Habitat Saturation and Limiting Factors 05/01/2016
E 162 Analyze Spring Chinook Habitat Saturation and Limiting Factors 05/01/2016
F 157 Yakima Spring Chinook Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring 05/01/2016
G 162 Analyze Spring Chinook Residual/Precocious Males 05/01/2016
H 157 Domestication Selection Research in the Yakima River Basin 05/01/2016
I 162 Analyze Domestication Selection Data 05/01/2016
J 162 Genetics and Scale Lab Support for M&E in the Yakima River Basin 05/01/2016
K 157 Ecological Interactions M&E in the Yakima River Basin 05/01/2016
L 162 Analyze Ecological Interactions Data 05/01/2016
M 183 Yakima Basin M&E Peer-Reviewed Publications 05/01/2016
N 119 Manage and Administer Yakima Basin M&E 05/01/2016
O 158 PIT tag juvenile O. mykiss 05/01/2016
P 157 Operate PIT tag detector array 07/12/2016