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Project Summary

Project 2003-050-00 - Evaluate the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Natural and Hatchery Environments
Project Number:
2003-050-00
Title:
Evaluate the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Natural and Hatchery Environments
Summary:
Differential reproductive success of individual adult salmon is essential to continuing adaptation and long-term persistence of salmon populations in the wild. Hatchery populations are on evolutionary trajectories that may reduce their fitness in the wild, and their interactions with wild populations are a serious conservation concern. It is unclear to what extent negative interactions between hatchery and wild fish can be avoided; several recent analyses of hatchery practices have recommended that hatchery broodstock either be integrated with, or segregated from, wild populations. In order to gain insight on the effectiveness of segregated programs, we propose to extend a unique study tracking the reproductive success of hatchery and wild origin steelhead spawning naturally, and hatchery fish propagated in the hatchery, using molecular markers. We have been sampling adults and smolts of the winter steelhead population in Forks Creek, a Willapa River tributary, since winter 1995-96. Preliminary results from the first generation of returns indicate markedly lower relative survival of hatchery fish, and hybridization between wild and hatchery fish despite significant differences in average spawning timing. There is significant variation in realized reproductive success of hatchery-spawned adults, due to differential fertilization success and low but variable marine survival among families. The question remains as to whether the wild population’s long-term persistence will be affected by hatchery releases. We are now able to extend these data to the returning adult third and fourth generations. Our experiment will allow us to compare the genetic diversity from one generation to the next in natural and hatchery environments, estimate the lifetime fitness of the offspring of both groups in the wild, determine the persistence of hatchery descendants in the wild and quantify the extent of hybridization and introgression between hatchery and wild fish.. Our study is poised to address these questions within the next few years.
Proposer:
None
Proponent Orgs:
University of Washington (Edu)
Starting FY:
2004
Ending FY:
2014
BPA PM:
Stage:
Area:
Province Subbasin %
Basinwide - 100.00%
Purpose:
Artificial Production
Emphasis:
RM and E
Focal Species:
Chinook - All Populations
Coho - Unspecified Population
Cutthroat Trout, Coastal - All Anadromous Populations
Cutthroat Trout, Coastal - Southwest Washington/Columbia River ESU
Steelhead - All Populations
Species Benefit:
Anadromous: 100.0%   Resident: 0.0%   Wildlife: 0.0%
Special:
None

No photos have been uploaded yet for this project.

Summary of Budgets

To view all expenditures for all fiscal years, click "Project Exp. by FY"

Expense SOY Budget Working Budget Contracted Amount Modified Contract Amount Expenditures *
FY2016 (Previous) $0 $0 $0 $0

FY2017 (Current) $0 $0 $0 $0

FY2018 (Next) $0 $0 $0 $0

* Expenditures data includes accruals and are based on data through 30-Jun-2017

No Decided Budget Transfers

Pending Budget Decision?  No


No Project Cost Share

FY2012 0 %
FY2011 0 %
FY2010 0 %
FY2009 0 %
FY2008 0 %
FY2007 0 %
Fiscal Year Cost Share Partner Total Proposed
Contribution
Total Confirmed
Contribution

Contracts

The table below contains contracts with the following statuses: Active, Complete, History, Issued.
Expense Contracts:
Number Contractor Name Title Status Contracted Amount Dates
25472 SOW University of Washington 200305000 EXP EVAL REPROD OF STEELHEAD History $254,170 12/1/2005 - 11/30/2006
30198 SOW University of Washington 2003-050-00 EXP EVALUATION REPROD OF STEELHEAD History $228,614 12/1/2006 - 11/30/2007
35797 SOW University of Washington 200305000 EXP EVALUATE REPRODUCTION OF STEELHEAD History $252,057 12/1/2007 - 11/30/2008
40163 SOW University of Washington 2003-050-00 EXP EVALUATE REPRO SUCCESS OF STEELHEAD 09 History $252,743 12/1/2008 - 11/30/2009
45208 SOW University of Washington 2003-050-00 EXP EVALUATE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF STEELHEAD 2010 History $176,805 12/1/2009 - 11/30/2010
50337 SOW University of Washington 2003-050-00 EXP EVALUATE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF STEELHEAD 2011 History $127,718 12/1/2010 - 11/30/2011



Annual Progress Reports
Expected (since FY2004):7
Completed:6
On time:6
Status Reports
Completed:27
On time:18
Avg Days Late:0

Earliest Subsequent           Accepted Count of Contract Deliverables
Contract Contract(s) Title Contractor Start End Status Reports Complete Green Yellow Red Total % Green and Complete Canceled
15990 25472, 30198, 35797, 40163, 45208, 50337 2003-050-00 EVAL REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF WILD/HATCHERY STEELHEAD University of Washington 12/2003 12/2003 History 27 46 0 0 9 55 83.64% 1
Project Totals 27 46 0 0 9 55 83.64% 1


Review: RME / AP Category Review

2008 FCRPS BiOp Workgroup Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-050-00-BIOP-20101105
Project Number: 2003-050-00
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal Number: RMECAT-2003-050-00
Completed Date: None
2008 FCRPS BiOp Workgroup Rating: Supports 2008 FCRPS BiOp
Comments: BiOp Workgroup Comments: No BiOp Workgroup comments

The BiOp RM&E Workgroups made the following determinations regarding the proposal's ability or need to support BiOp Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) RPAs. If you have questions regarding these RPA association conclusions, please contact your BPA COTR and they will help clarify, or they will arrange further discussion with the appropriate RM&E Workgroup Leads. BiOp RPA associations for the proposed work are: (62.5 64.2)
All Questionable RPA Associations ( ) and
All Deleted RPA Associations ( )
Proponent Response:

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-050-00-ISRP-20101015
Project: 2003-050-00 - Evaluate the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Natural and Hatchery Environments
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal Number: RMECAT-2003-050-00
Completed Date: 12/17/2010
Final Round ISRP Date: 12/17/2010
Final Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
Final Round ISRP Comment:
This research project to investigate fine-scale genetic attributes of a segregated winter steelhead program outside of the Columbia River basin was initiated in 2003 in a suite of projects to address RPA 182 in the 2000 FCRPS Biological Opinion.

The project was designed to evaluate relative reproductive success of natural and segregated-hatchery steelhead in both hatchery and natural environments. The project was especially of interest because during two years early in the program (late 1990s) hatchery-origin adults were permitted to escape to spawn naturally, but a policy decision was subsequently made to intercept hatchery-origin adults. This provided a natural experiment to evaluate the fate of a pulse of hatchery contribution to natural production through time.

The project had several primary objectives: evaluate variation in reproductive success of families in the hatchery environment; evaluate effective population size and inbreeding accumulation in the hatchery environment; estimate selection on life-history traits in the hatchery and natural environment; and evaluate relative reproductive success of natural fish with different levels of segregated hatchery parents in their pedigree.

The scientists responsible for the project have completed a portion of the original project and published in peer-reviewed literature on the completed portions. Objectives to evaluate the breeding pattern, reproductive success, and effective population size in a segregated production hatchery were completed. Even with a policy and an attempt to randomize breeding in the hatchery, empirical data demonstrated that larger and earlier spawning fish were selected for breeding, there was high variance in reproductive success (demonstrating selection among hatchery families), and a low number of effective breeders.

Investigation of the loss of genetic diversity in the hatchery population, heritability of key traits of hatchery-origin individuals, and relative reproductive success in the natural environment of adults with varying levels of segregated-hatchery steelhead ancestry is partially complete.

The proposal requests support for one year to archive samples, complete a reference database, finish analysis, and report findings. The ISRP concludes that this request meets scientific review criteria. It appears to the ISRP, based on the proposal and presentation, that the hoped for analysis on relative reproductive success in a population that was re-adapting to the natural environment following a pulse of hatchery introgression is unlikely to be realized because the weir used to exclude hatchery adults has not been effective. Hatchery-origin adults, in unaccounted proportions and numbers, have been escaping to spawn naturally. This coupled with inefficient smolt and adult sampling diminishes the likelihood of addressing that objective. The project should be able to evaluate the genetic consequences for a natural population when segregation is not complete.
First Round ISRP Date: 10/18/2010
First Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
First Round ISRP Comment:
This research project to investigate fine-scale genetic attributes of a segregated winter steelhead program outside of the Columbia River basin was initiated in 2003 in a suite of projects to address RPA 182 in the 2000 FCRPS Biological Opinion.

The project was designed to evaluate relative reproductive success of natural and segregated-hatchery steelhead in both hatchery and natural environments. The project was especially of interest because during two years early in the program (late 1990s) hatchery-origin adults were permitted to escape to spawn naturally, but a policy decision was subsequently made to intercept hatchery-origin adults. This provided a natural experiment to evaluate the fate of a pulse of hatchery contribution to natural production through time.

The project had several primary objectives: evaluate variation in reproductive success of families in the hatchery environment; evaluate effective population size and inbreeding accumulation in the hatchery environment; estimate selection on life-history traits in the hatchery and natural environment; and evaluate relative reproductive success of natural fish with different levels of segregated hatchery parents in their pedigree.

The scientists responsible for the project have completed a portion of the original project and published in peer-reviewed literature on the completed portions. Objectives to evaluate the breeding pattern, reproductive success, and effective population size in a segregated production hatchery were completed. Even with a policy and an attempt to randomize breeding in the hatchery, empirical data demonstrated that larger and earlier spawning fish were selected for breeding, there was high variance in reproductive success (demonstrating selection among hatchery families), and a low number of effective breeders.

Investigation of the loss of genetic diversity in the hatchery population, heritability of key traits of hatchery-origin individuals, and relative reproductive success in the natural environment of adults with varying levels of segregated-hatchery steelhead ancestry is partially complete.

The proposal requests support for one year to archive samples, complete a reference database, finish analysis, and report findings. The ISRP concludes that this request meets scientific review criteria. It appears to the ISRP, based on the proposal and presentation, that the hoped for analysis on relative reproductive success in a population that was re-adapting to the natural environment following a pulse of hatchery introgression is unlikely to be realized because the weir used to exclude hatchery adults has not been effective. Hatchery-origin adults, in unaccounted proportions and numbers, have been escaping to spawn naturally. This coupled with inefficient smolt and adult sampling diminishes the likelihood of addressing that objective. The project should be able to evaluate the genetic consequences for a natural population when segregation is not complete.
Documentation Links:

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 2003-050-00-NPCC-20110125
Project: 2003-050-00 - Evaluate the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Natural and Hatchery Environments
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal: RMECAT-2003-050-00
Proposal State: Pending BPA Response
Approved Date: 6/10/2011
Recommendation: Close Out
Comments: Implement through 2012 to close out. Implement to complete work and submit final report.
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review

Legal Assessment (In-Lieu)

Assessment Number: 2003-050-00-INLIEU-20090521
Project Number: 2003-050-00
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 10/6/2006
In Lieu Rating: Problems Exist
Cost Share Rating: None
Comment: RM&E of reproductive success of wild vs naturally spawning hatchery steelhead; fishery managers also authorized/required; needs cost share or other remedy.

Capital Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-050-00-CAPITAL-20090618
Project Number: 2003-050-00
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 2/27/2007
Capital Rating: Does Not Qualify for Capital Funding
Capital Asset Category: None
Comment: None

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-050-00-ISRP-20060831
Project: 2003-050-00 - Evaluate the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Natural and Hatchery Environments
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 8/31/2006
Final Round ISRP Date: None
Final Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
Final Round ISRP Comment:
In many ways, this is a model project and proposal that tackles critical uncertainties with a clear design, modest budget, and a stellar publication record. The technical section of the proposal provides an excellent review of the issue of hatchery-wild fish interaction that summarizes the available and relevant literature and presents the project in context to issues of concern within the Columbia and elsewhere. Previous and positive past ISRP comments apply.

Results from the project are applicable systemwide, thus the work is recommended as fundable, highest priority. A benefit includes the fact that the project is well underway and already has two to three generations of pedigree and fitness data available for analysis. The region should take advantage of this opportunity. It will provide data much sooner than other proposals that are in planning stages.

A thorough summary of the history of this project, including bumps along the way, was provided. Monitoring efforts have improved continually and further evaluation has occurred. This is a rare opportunity to evaluate hatchery spawning effects on a wild steelhead population, and of particular significance to Washington steelhead culture and segregation projects. Continued work is justified, and most work to date is published, in press, or shall be submitted to peer-reviewed reports.

This proposal offers opportunities to monitor essentially all the genetic issues raised in regard to hatcheries. This project is out-of-basin but addresses the specific objectives on relative fitness of wild and hatchery steelhead, thus is highly relevant to the Columbia River Basin with notable strengths and applicability. Objectives are to evaluate relative reproductive success, and the proponent's publication record indicates that the information will be useful to subbasin plans with similar supplementation experiments or interests.

The proposal also describes how sponsors have reached out to other supplementation researchers to foster an ongoing dialogue. We support this and encourage its continuation. The project was compared to others in the basin (e.g., Hood, Abernathy) and outside the basin (Minter, Hamma Hamma; no mention of Keogh), and an integration of studies has begun (the proponent should provide a report of the workshops).

Project documentation would benefit by a letter from WDFW Forks Creek facility documenting their continued support of and participation in this project. No doubt they do.
Documentation Links:

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 2003-050-00-NPCC-20090924
Project: 2003-050-00 - Evaluate the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Natural and Hatchery Environments
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Approved Date: 10/23/2006
Recommendation: Fund
Comments:

Project Relationships: None

Name Role Organization
Tom Quinn Project Lead University of Washington
Todd Seamons Project Lead University of Washington
Tracy Hauser Project Manager Bonneville Power Administration
Rosemary Mazaika Supervisor Bonneville Power Administration