Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program
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Project Summary

Project 2003-054-00 - Evaluate the Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery-Origin and Wild-Origin Steelhead Spawning Naturally in the Hood River
Project Number:
2003-054-00
Title:
Evaluate the Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery-Origin and Wild-Origin Steelhead Spawning Naturally in the Hood River
Summary:
BACKGROUND
(see bibliography of our BPA funded publications in attachments file “Bibliography to 2016”).

Hood River steelhead spawn only above the former Powerdale Dam, which was a complete barrier to all salmonids. From 1991 until the dam was removed in summer of 2010, every adult passed above the dam was measured, cataloged, and sampled for scales or fin snip. We used those samples to create a 4-generation pedigree of winter run fish that we used to analyze the fitness of winter run hatchery and wild fish. The main results are firstly, that the old, domesticated “Big Creek” stock of winter-run fish had very poor fitness (~10% reproductive success, relative to wild fish) and the newer, F1, stock averaged about 85% relative reproductive success. Secondly, F2 (second generation) hatchery fish had half the fitness of F1 fish raised side-by-side with them in the same hatchery. This result implies a genetically-based decline in fitness. Thirdly, we also found that wild-born offspring of two F1 hatchery fish averaged 37% the fitness of the offspring of two wild fish, while offspring of hatchery-by-wild crosses averaged 87%. Again, this result suggests a genetically-based effect. We also showed (1) that F1 fish made better broodstock than wild fish (in terms of per-capita production of returning hatchery offspring), and (2) that there was a tradeoff among wild broodstock in which those that performed best in the hatchery produced offspring that performed worst in the wild, and vice versa. Finally, we see large differences between the offspring of wild and hatchery fish, raised under identical conditions, in patterns of gene expression. Thus, a large amount of empirical data suggest that very strong domestication selection in that hatchery made winter run fish quickly adapt to the hatchery, with negative consequences for performance in the wild. A meta-analysis of RRS studies from other species and rivers suggests this is a general phenomenon, and not peculiarity of steelhead or the Hood River.

QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED: What is the mechanism of domestication?
Our main efforts are now focused on figuring out what are the selection pressures in the hatchery that cause rapid domestication, and what aspects of hatchery culture exacerbate that selection. If we could answer those questions, then it might be possible to modify the hatchery environment to produce hatchery fish that are more like wild fish. That is our current goal. Towards that end, we are currently pursuing three lines of research.

(1) Test effects of modifying hatchery rearing conditions:
Here we vary environmental conditions in the hatchery that we suspect might exacerbate selection (e.g. density, feeding methods, environmental complexity). Then we test whether the modified conditions produce fish that show less variation among families in performance in the hatchery than do the standard conditions. Under standard conditions we see large variance among families in size at release, which means large opportunity for selection (larger smolts are more likely to return as adults, so we use size at release as our measure of performance in the hatchery). If we can find environmental conditions that reduce that variance, then there would be less selection among families, and a slower rate of adaptation to the hatchery.

(2) Identify trait variation among families that correlates with their performance in the hatchery:
We hypothesize that what is under selection are traits that enhance an individual’s ability to grow quickly in the novel environment of a hatchery. So the second approach has been to test candidate behavioral and physiological traits that might enhance growth. To date we have shown that fast growing families tend to be more dominant than slow growing families, and we are currently testing whether other measures of boldness and activity correlate with family growth rate.
We are also looking at genome-wide patterns of gene expression in the siblings of each family that is being raised in growth rate experiments (gene expression means how actively each gene is being transcribed to make proteins). Then we test whether expression levels of any sets of genes predict which families grow the fastest. The idea is that identifying suites of genes that predict growth rate under hatchery conditions might point us to the traits that are under selection.

(3) Genome scans:
The third approach is to do genome-wide scans of wild fish and first-generation hatchery fish in order to identify genes that may have responded to selection. The idea is, again, that finding such genes may point us to the traits that were under selection. There are two ways to do genome scans: gene expression analysis and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We are currently undertaking both types of studies.
Proposer:
None
Proponent Orgs:
Oregon State University (Edu)
Starting FY:
2004
Ending FY:
2019
Stage:
Implementation - Project Status Report
Area:
Province Subbasin %
Basinwide - 100.00%
Purpose:
Artificial Production
Emphasis:
RM and E
Focal Species:
Steelhead - All Populations
Steelhead - Lower Columbia River DPS
Species Benefit:
Anadromous: 100.0%   Resident: 0.0%   Wildlife: 0.0%
Special:
None

No photos have been uploaded yet for this project.

Summary of Budgets

To view all expenditures for all fiscal years, click "Project Exp. by FY"

Expense SOY Budget Working Budget Contracted Amount Modified Contract Amount Expenditures *
FY2018 (Previous) $331,526 $331,526 $331,526 $331,526 $311,134

BiOp FCRPS 2008 (non-Accord) $331,526 $331,526 $331,526 $311,134
FY2019 (Current) $301,526 $301,526 $301,526 $301,526 $19,600

BiOp FCRPS 2008 (non-Accord) $301,526 $301,526 $301,526 $19,600
FY2020 (Next) $0 $0 $0 $0

BiOp FCRPS 2008 (non-Accord) $0 $0 $0 $0

* Expenditures data includes accruals and are based on data through 31-Oct-2018

Decided Budget Transfers  (FY2018 - FY2020)

Acct FY Acct Type Amount Fund Budget Decision Date
FY2018 Expense $331,526 From: BiOp FCRPS 2008 (non-Accord) FY18 SOY Budgets 07/17/2017
FY2019 Expense $301,526 From: BiOp FCRPS 2008 (non-Accord) Q1 FY19 Budgets 09/17/2018

Pending Budget Decision?  No


Actual Project Cost Share

Current Fiscal Year — 2019
Cost Share Partner Total Proposed Contribution Total Confirmed Contribution
There are no project cost share contributions to show.
Previous Fiscal Years
Fiscal Year Total Contributions % of Budget
2017 $0 (Draft) 0 % (Draft)
2016 (Draft)
2015 (Draft)
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007

Contracts

The table below contains contracts with the following statuses: Active, Complete, History, Issued.
Expense Contracts:
Number Contractor Name Title Status Contracted Amount Dates
77259 SOW Oregon State University 2003-054-00 EXP REPRO OF STEELHEAD IN HOOD RIV Issued $331,526 11/1/2017 - 10/31/2018
76914 REL 2 SOW Oregon State University 2003-054-00 EXP REPRO OF STEELHEAD IN HOOD RIV Issued $301,526 11/1/2018 - 10/31/2019



Annual Progress Reports
Expected (since FY2004):14
Completed:12
On time:12
Status Reports
Completed:55
On time:26
Avg Days Late:0

Earliest Subsequent           Accepted Count of Contract Deliverables
Contract Contract(s) Title Contractor Start End Status Reports Complete Green Yellow Red Total % Green and Complete Canceled
19502 PI 200305400 REPRO OF STEELHEAD IN HOOD RIV Oregon State University 10/2004 10/2004 Closed 4 5 0 0 0 5 100.00% 0
29562 35294, 39163, 43555, 49886, 54599, 58865, 63427, 67127, 70177, 74233, 77259, 76914 REL 2 200305400 GRN REPRO OF STEELHEAD IN HOOD RIVER Oregon State University 10/2006 10/2006 Issued 51 79 0 0 5 84 94.05% 0
Project Totals 55 84 0 0 5 89 94.38% 0


The table content is updated frequently and thus contains more recent information than what was in the original proposal reviewed by ISRP and Council.

Review: RME / AP Category Review

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 2003-054-00-NPCC-20110124
Project: 2003-054-00 - Evaluate the Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery-Origin and Wild-Origin Steelhead Spawning Naturally in the Hood River
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal: RMECAT-2003-054-00
Proposal State: Pending BPA Response
Approved Date: 6/10/2011
Recommendation: Fund (Qualified)
Comments: Implement through FY 2014. Implementation beyond 2014 based on ISRP and Council review of the results report and/or outcome of a regional hatchery effects evaluation process.
Conditions:
Council Condition #1 Programmatic Issue: RMECAT #4 Hatchery Effectiveness—.
Council Condition #2 Programmatic Issue: RMECAT #6 Research projects in general—.

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-054-00-ISRP-20101015
Project: 2003-054-00 - Evaluate the Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery-Origin and Wild-Origin Steelhead Spawning Naturally in the Hood River
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal Number: RMECAT-2003-054-00
Completed Date: 12/17/2010
Final Round ISRP Date: 12/17/2010
Final Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
Final Round ISRP Comment:
This project was initiated in 2003 as one of a suite of projects to evaluate relative reproductive success of hatchery-origin steelhead compared to natural steelhead when spawning naturally, to address critical uncertainties identified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp RPA 182.
First Round ISRP Date: 10/18/2010
First Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
First Round ISRP Comment:
This project was initiated in 2003 as one of a suite of projects to evaluate relative reproductive success of hatchery-origin steelhead compared to natural steelhead when spawning naturally, to address critical uncertainties identified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp RPA 182.
Documentation Links:

2008 FCRPS BiOp Workgroup Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-054-00-BIOP-20101105
Project Number: 2003-054-00
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal Number: RMECAT-2003-054-00
Completed Date: None
2008 FCRPS BiOp Workgroup Rating: Supports 2008 FCRPS BiOp
Comments: BiOp Workgroup Comments: No BiOp Workgroup comments

The BiOp RM&E Workgroups made the following determinations regarding the proposal's ability or need to support BiOp Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) RPAs. If you have questions regarding these RPA association conclusions, please contact your BPA COTR and they will help clarify, or they will arrange further discussion with the appropriate RM&E Workgroup Leads. BiOp RPA associations for the proposed work are: ( 62.5 64.1 62.5 )
All Questionable RPA Associations ( ) and
All Deleted RPA Associations (50.6 64.1 64.2 64.3 65.1 65.2)
Proponent Response:
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 2003-054-00-NPCC-20090924
Project: 2003-054-00 - Evaluate the Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery-Origin and Wild-Origin Steelhead Spawning Naturally in the Hood River
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Approved Date: 10/23/2006
Recommendation: Fund
Comments:

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-054-00-ISRP-20060831
Project: 2003-054-00 - Evaluate the Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery-Origin and Wild-Origin Steelhead Spawning Naturally in the Hood River
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 8/31/2006
Final Round ISRP Date: None
Final Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
Final Round ISRP Comment:
The response addressed the ISRP questions. The ISRP appreciated the effort to address the review in a professional and positive manner with explanatory notes and even figures. The ISRP expects that the principal investigators will consider the ISRP's comments on residualized hatchery fish in subsequent proposals, reports, and reviews.

A thorough response and additional references were provided, for the most part. Clearly, this is important work on the issue of wild and hatchery fish interactions and supplementation. The papers in press, in review, and planned shall become important contributions to fisheries science and particularly to the question of supplementation in the Columbia River Basin. The opportunity to review the papers in press or in review was much appreciated and assisted in confirming or addressing previous ISRP concerns quite adequately.

The question of contribution of residualized hatchery fish to parentage of wild and hatchery returns remains. Htrad may have provided no evidence of a parental contribution to returns since their success in spawning (or of progeny post-spawning) may have been near zero, but Hnew males may be more successful. The implications of reproductive success of residualized Hnew males may be substantial. It seems this could be addressed with more planning and thought, perhaps by sub-sampling residuals directly or by samples from hatchery smolts released at acclimation sites throughout the Hood River. Indeed, the opportunity may be unique to this system. Does "acclimatization" provide a benefit or loss to overall reproductive success of wild fish?

Supplementation was shown here (paper in review) to have no effect on the reproductive success of wild fish. However, does it add anything? In other words, if there is no added benefit when wild fish are seeding habitat to capacity, then what is the point of supplementation?

Ecological effects remain an issue. Regardless, a continuation of this work is highly recommended since it will address important questions on the genetics of salmonids and hatcheries, particularly if more focus is placed on the residual steelhead issue, and success in sampling can continue with the removal of the Powerdale Dam, which seems possible.

Further collaboration should be encouraged - this work should form part of a basinwide study on supplementation, filling gaps not possible in other studies and replicating work elsewhere, thus agreement on standard procedures is necessary, as appears to be unfolding.
Documentation Links:

Legal Assessment (In-Lieu)

Assessment Number: 2003-054-00-INLIEU-20090521
Project Number: 2003-054-00
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 10/6/2006
In Lieu Rating: Problems Exist
Cost Share Rating: None
Comment: RM&E regarding supplementation efficacy using Hood River populations; other entities authorized/required (fishery managers); need cost share or other remedy.

Capital Assessment

Assessment Number: 2003-054-00-CAPITAL-20090618
Project Number: 2003-054-00
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 2/27/2007
Capital Rating: Does Not Qualify for Capital Funding
Capital Asset Category: None
Comment: None

Project Relationships: None

Name Role Organization
Michael Blouin Project Lead Oregon State University
John Skidmore Supervisor Bonneville Power Administration
Maureen Kavanagh Project Manager Bonneville Power Administration
Elisabeth Bowers Env. Compliance Lead Bonneville Power Administration
Sandy Cobb Administrative Contact Oregon State University