Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program
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Project Summary

Project 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Project Number:
1993-056-00
Title:
Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Summary:
Steelhead Columbia River Basin Hatcheries are nearly all reared for release as 1-year-old smolts, rather than the 2¬and 3-year-old smolt life history patterns found in nature. High growth rates associated with accelerated hatchery rearing to a 1-year-old smolt life history may contribute to maladaptive behavioral traits and reduced post-release survival, and may constitute a primary mechanism leading to reduced fitness in hatchery fish. This project evaluates genetic, physiological, and life history impacts of rearing 1- vs 2-year-old steelhead smolts associated with hatchery reform actions in the Upper Columbia River (Methow Basin). The study is cost effective in that it is conducted using groups of integrated steelhead already being reared in Washington tributaries of the upper Columbia River as part of ESA recovery efforts. The study is providing husbandry solutions that will help increase fitness, and alleviate maladaptive traits of hatchery-reared steelhead. The design fills identified gaps the FCRPS BiOp Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives 39, 63.2, 64.2. It will develop hatchery reform actions and best management practices for artificial production programs to make a net positive contribution to recovery of listed populations.

Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) 63.2 of the FCRPS Biological Opinion calls for determining the effects of implemented hatchery reforms on salmon and steelhead populations. There is currently a specified gap in coverage for Upper Columbia River steelhead (RM&E workgroup June 2009 predecisional draft document and subsequent workgroups). This project provides for implementation and evaluation of major hatchery reforms identified by the RM&E workgroup for the US Fish and Wildlife Service’s Winthrop National Fish Hatchery (WNFH). The required transition to local broodstock requires hatchery reform actions that i) can accommodate a later return and spawn timing, ii) induce proper smoltification, iii) promote high survival, and iv) maintain natural levels of fitness in the hatchery stock. The project quantifies the effects of hatchery reform actions on these metrics so that the effects important hatchery reform parameters (e.g., PHOS and PNI) on natural populations can be more accurately predicted and managed. Simply, transition to local broodstock cannot be successful without effective implementation and monitoring of the hatchery reforms described in this proposal and the HGMP for the WNFH.

Nearly all steelhead intervention programs within the Basin will require non-conventional rearing methods in order to minimize the fitness loss described by Araki et al. (2008 and 2009) while achieving high smoltification and survival rates. The methods developed and tested under this proposal will be transferable in real time to other potential local broodstock programs designed for recovery that wrestle with the same issues (e.g., Touchet, Tucannon, East Fork Salmon River). The RME workgroup indicated under RPA 64.2 that additional analysis may be needed to determine if supplementation programs are having a negative impact on recovery. Negative effects from ecological interactions constitute one of the primary concerns with hatchery programs. This project will focus on the effects of hatchery reform actions on residualism, which can exacerbate competition and predation effects on natural-origin fish survival. Hatchery-induced residualism caused by early male maturity would make it nearly impossible to implement hatchery reform alternatives because controlling the proportionate natural influence (PNI) and other important parameters included HSRG models cannot be controlled if residuals are maturing and interbreeding with natural-origin fish.

The project has two biological objectives: 1) Improve survival and reduce fitness loss in Columbia River steelhead smolts by minimizing unnatural selection on body size and other smolt characteristics, and 2) Identify behavioral and physiological traits under selection through laboratory-scale research. The project will pursue the objectives by intensive monitoring of S1 and S2 steelhead smolts at WNHF and conducting mechanistic laboratory-based research on the same populations. A full assessment of the hatchery reform actions will require future evaluations of the reproductive performance of returning adults from the S1 and S2 smolt programs and the fitness of their offspring.
Proposer:
None
Proponent Orgs:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Govt - Federal)
Starting FY:
1993
Ending FY:
2025
BPA PM:
Stage:
Implementation - Project Status Report
Area:
Province Subbasin %
Basinwide - 100.00%
Purpose:
Artificial Production
Emphasis:
RM and E
Focal Species:
Chinook - All Populations
Chinook - Mid-Columbia River Spring ESU
Chinook - Snake River Spring/Summer
Chinook - Snake River Spring/Summer ESU
Sockeye - All Populations
Sockeye - Okanogan River ESU
Sockeye - Snake River ESU
Steelhead - All Populations
Steelhead - Middle Columbia River DPS
Steelhead - Upper Columbia River DPS
Species Benefit:
Anadromous: 100.0%   Resident: 0.0%   Wildlife: 0.0%
Special:
None

Description: Page: 24 Figure 1: Map of the Columbia River basin, showing locations of Mainstem Dams and Winthrop National Fish Hatchery (WNFH). PIT tag interrogation sites used were located at Rocky Reach, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams as well as detection via a towed array in the Columbia River estuary.

Project(s): 1993-056-00

Document: P121437

Dimensions: 505 x 507

Description: Page: 70 Figure 10: Histology of testes from males sampled in May with high levels of pituitary FSH expression and low levels of testis AMH expression. Stage IV (A), Stage III (B), Stage II (C). Yellow line in A indicates tubule filled with spermatozoa. Yellow line in C indicates cyst of late type B spermatogonia. Arrow indicates pair of differentiated type A spermatogonia. Asterisk indicates mitotic figure in spermatogonia. Magnification indicated in photomicrograph.

Project(s): 1993-056-00

Document: P121437

Dimensions: 293 x 596

Description: Page: 71 Figure 11: Histology of testes from males sampled in May with high levels of pituitary FSH expression and moderate levels of testis AMH expression. Stage II (A), Stage I (B), Stage I (C). Yellow line in A indicates cyst of late type B spermatogonia. Yellow line in C indicates cyst of late type B spermatogonia. Arrow indicates pair of differentiated type A spermatogonia. Asterisk indicates mitotic figure in spermatogonia. Magnification indicated in photomicrograph.

Project(s): 1993-056-00

Document: P121437

Dimensions: 297 x 609

Description: Page: 72 Figure 12: Histology of testes from males sampled in May with moderate levels of testis AMH expression and low (A) or high (B) levels of pituitary FSH expression. Prespermatogenic stage (A), Stage I (B), Stage I (C). Arrow in (A) indicates isolated undifferentiated type A spermatogonia. Arrow in (B) indicates pair of differentiated type A spermatogonia. Asterisk in (B) indicates mitotic figure in spermatogonia. Magnification indicated in photomicrograph.

Project(s): 1993-056-00

Document: P121437

Dimensions: 288 x 608

Description: Page: 73 Figure 13: Histology of testes from males sampled in May with low levels of pituitary FSH expression and high levels of testis AMH expression. All fish were prespermatogenic stage with isolated undifferentiated type A spermatogonia. Magnification indicated in photomicrograph.

Project(s): 1993-056-00

Document: P121437

Dimensions: 294 x 615


Summary of Budgets

To view all expenditures for all fiscal years, click "Project Exp. by FY"

To see more detailed project budget information, please visit the "Project Budget" page

Decided Budget Transfers  (FY2023 - FY2025)

Acct FY Acct Type Amount Fund Budget Decision Date
FY2023 Expense $590,897 From: BiOp FCRPS 2008 (non-Accord) FY23 SOY Budget Upload 06/01/2022
FY2024 Expense $616,896 From: General FY24 SOY Budget Upload 06/01/2023
FY2025 Expense $616,896 From: BiOp FCRPS 2008 (non-Accord) FY25 SOY 05/31/2024

Pending Budget Decision?  No


Actual Project Cost Share

Current Fiscal Year — 2024   DRAFT
Cost Share Partner Total Proposed Contribution Total Confirmed Contribution
There are no project cost share contributions to show.
Previous Fiscal Years
Fiscal Year Total Contributions % of Budget
2023 $38,550 6%
2022 $43,125 7%
2021 $42,185 7%
2020 $27,735 4%
2019 $23,300 4%
2018 $28,067 5%
2017 $38,301 6%
2016 $71,549 11%
2015 $503,984 43%
2014 $473,464 40%
2013 $344,198 37%
2012 $334,941 36%
2011 $271,753 32%
2010 $275,204 35%
2009 $123,300 20%
2008 $275,579 36%
2007 $171,276 15%

Contracts

The table below contains contracts with the following statuses: Active, Closed, Complete, History, Issued.
* "Total Contracted Amount" column includes contracted amount from both capital and expense components of the contract.
Expense Contracts:
Number Contractor Name Title Status Total Contracted Amount Dates
187 REL 1 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF CAP BROODSTOCK TECHNOLOGY Closed $6,979 5/1/2000 - 5/31/2001
5227 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 RESEARCH ON CAPTIVITY BROODSTOCK PROGRAMS FOR SAL. Closed $5,170,011 6/1/2001 - 5/31/2004
17690 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration PI 1993-056-00 RESEARCH ON CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK PROGRAMS Closed $1,467,243 6/1/2004 - 5/31/2005
22931 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP. RESEARCH ON CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK PROGRAMS Closed $1,468,000 6/1/2005 - 5/31/2006
28086 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP RESEARCH ON CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK PROGRAMS Closed $1,457,582 6/1/2006 - 5/31/2007
BPA-003233 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Demonstration of Captive Salmonids Active $0 10/1/2006 - 9/30/2007
32125 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP RESEARCH ON CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK PROGRAMS Closed $995,691 6/1/2007 - 7/31/2008
36957 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP RESEARCH ON CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK PROGRAMS Closed $316,566 6/1/2008 - 5/31/2009
37802 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW RESEARCH ON CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK PROGRAM Closed $183,434 6/1/2008 - 5/31/2009
41659 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $354,640 6/1/2009 - 5/31/2010
42487 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $143,019 6/1/2009 - 5/31/2010
46273 REL 7 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $398,912 6/1/2010 - 5/31/2011
47580 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $110,938 6/1/2010 - 5/31/2011
BPA-005706 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Demonstration of Captive Salmonids Active $36,261 10/1/2010 - 9/30/2011
46273 REL 25 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $421,813 6/1/2011 - 5/31/2012
52791 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $127,773 6/1/2011 - 5/31/2012
54738 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS (NOAA) RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $19,500 10/1/2011 - 9/30/2012
BPA-006348 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $30,858 10/1/2011 - 9/30/2012
46273 REL 44 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $401,252 6/1/2012 - 5/31/2013
56906 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $139,344 6/1/2012 - 5/31/2013
58972 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS (NOAA) RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $20,967 10/1/2012 - 9/30/2013
BPA-007022 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $29,323 10/1/2012 - 9/30/2013
46273 REL 67 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $401,778 6/1/2013 - 5/31/2014
61267 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW - NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $139,360 6/1/2013 - 5/31/2014
62737 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS - NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $51,584 10/1/2013 - 9/30/2014
BPA-007727 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $29,089 10/1/2013 - 9/30/2014
65315 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW - NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $150,454 6/1/2014 - 5/31/2015
46273 REL 87 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA RESEARCH TO ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM Closed $464,806 6/1/2014 - 6/30/2015
66666 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP DEMONSTRATION OF CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK TECHNOLOGY Closed $31,673 10/1/2014 - 9/30/2015
68647 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW - ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $175,551 6/1/2015 - 5/31/2016
46273 REL 103 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA - ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $453,717 7/1/2015 - 6/30/2016
70218 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS - ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $23,710 10/1/2015 - 9/30/2016
BPA-009141 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $1,432 10/1/2015 - 9/30/2016
72676 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP - UW ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $204,064 6/1/2016 - 6/30/2017
46273 REL 117 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $379,288 7/1/2016 - 6/30/2017
73630 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $24,900 10/1/2016 - 9/30/2017
BPA-009525 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $2,760 10/1/2016 - 9/30/2017
46273 REL 133 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $352,859 7/1/2017 - 6/30/2018
76269 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $206,705 7/1/2017 - 6/30/2018
76845 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $10,044 10/1/2017 - 9/30/2018
BPA-010067 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $22,433 10/1/2017 - 9/30/2018
76910 REL 2 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $202,744 7/1/2018 - 6/30/2019
46273 REL 149 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $353,978 7/1/2018 - 6/30/2019
80308 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $26,750 10/1/2018 - 9/30/2019
BPA-010799 Bonneville Power Administration PIT Tags/Readers - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $3,306 10/1/2018 - 9/30/2019
76910 REL 7 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $179,398 7/1/2019 - 6/30/2020
46273 REL 167 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $310,922 7/1/2019 - 6/30/2020
82492 SOW Biomark, LLC. 1993-056-00 EXP BIOMARK ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $45,200 7/1/2019 - 6/30/2020
83223 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $27,172 10/1/2019 - 9/30/2020
BPA-011592 Bonneville Power Administration FY20 Internal Services/PIT tags Active $47,503 10/1/2019 - 9/30/2020
76910 REL 12 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $87,779 7/1/2020 - 6/30/2021
83639 REL 12 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $447,659 7/1/2020 - 6/30/2021
85987 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $28,624 10/1/2020 - 9/30/2021
BPA-012066 Bonneville Power Administration FY21 PIT Tags Active $40,205 10/1/2020 - 9/30/2021
83639 REL 26 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $429,604 7/1/2021 - 6/30/2022
76910 REL 17 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $89,039 7/1/2021 - 6/30/2022
88797 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $29,424 10/1/2021 - 9/30/2022
BPA-013059 Bonneville Power Administration FY22 PIT tags Active $1,640 10/1/2021 - 9/30/2022
83639 REL 39 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $484,058 7/1/2022 - 6/30/2023
76910 REL 22 SOW University of Washington 1993-056-00 EXP UW ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $69,137 7/1/2022 - 6/30/2023
91062 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Closed $27,720 10/1/2022 - 9/30/2023
83639 REL 51 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Issued $563,177 7/1/2023 - 6/30/2024
93368 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Issued $26,623 10/1/2023 - 9/30/2024
BPA-013990 Bonneville Power Administration Advance Hatchery Reform Research Active $0 10/1/2023 - 9/30/2024
83639 REL 62 SOW National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Issued $587,033 7/1/2024 - 6/30/2025
CR-367136 SOW US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Pending $0 10/1/2024 - 9/30/2025



Annual Progress Reports
Expected (since FY2004):53
Completed:51
On time:50
Status Reports
Completed:190
On time:157
Avg Days Early:5

                Count of Contract Deliverables
Earliest Contract Subsequent Contracts Title Contractor Earliest Start Latest End Latest Status Accepted Reports Complete Green Yellow Red Total % Green and Complete Canceled
187 REL 1 5227, 17690, 22931, 28086, 32125, 36957, 37802, 41659, 42487, 46273 REL 7, 47580, 46273 REL 25, 52791, 46273 REL 44, 56906, 46273 REL 67, 61267, 65315, 46273 REL 87, 68647, 46273 REL 103, 46273 REL 117, 72676, 46273 REL 133, 76269, 76910 REL 2, 46273 REL 149, 76910 REL 7, 46273 REL 167, 76910 REL 12, 83639 REL 12, 83639 REL 26, 76910 REL 17, 83639 REL 39, 76910 REL 22, 83639 REL 51, 83639 REL 62 1993-056-00 EXP NOAA ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 05/01/2000 06/30/2025 Issued 135 192 29 0 0 221 100.00% 5
BPA-3233 PIT Tags - Demonstration of Captive Salmonids Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2006 09/30/2007 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-5706 PIT Tags - Demonstration of Captive Salmonids Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2010 09/30/2011 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-6348 PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2011 09/30/2012 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
54738 58972, 62737, 66666, 70218, 73630, 76845, 80308, 83223, 85987, 88797, 91062, 93368, CR-367136 1993-056-00 EXP USFWS ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 10/01/2011 09/30/2025 Pending 51 43 3 0 0 46 100.00% 2
BPA-7022 PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2012 09/30/2013 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-7727 PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2013 09/30/2014 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-9141 PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2015 09/30/2016 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-9525 PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2016 09/30/2017 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-10067 PIT Tags - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2017 09/30/2018 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-10799 PIT Tags/Readers - Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2018 09/30/2019 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
82492 1993-056-00 EXP BIOMARK ADVANCE HATCHERY REFORM RESEARCH Biomark, LLC. 07/01/2019 06/30/2020 Closed 4 2 0 0 0 2 100.00% 1
BPA-11592 FY20 Internal Services/PIT tags Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2019 09/30/2020 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-12066 FY21 PIT Tags Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2020 09/30/2021 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-13059 FY22 PIT tags Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2021 09/30/2022 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BPA-13990 Advance Hatchery Reform Research Bonneville Power Administration 10/01/2023 09/30/2024 Active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Project Totals 190 237 32 0 0 269 100.00% 8


The table content is updated frequently and thus contains more recent information than what was in the original proposal reviewed by ISRP and Council.

Review: 2018 Research Project Status Review

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-NPCC-20210302
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: 2018 Research Project Status Review
Approved Date: 12/20/2018
Recommendation: Implement
Comments: Recommendation: Sponsor is requested to submit an updated proposal in the Mainstem/Program Support Review, including a timeline for completing current research. Consider ISRP comments in proposal as appropriate. See programmatic issue on Fish Propagation. See programmatic issue on Information Sharing and Reporting.

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-ISRP-20181115
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: 2018 Research Project Status Review
Completed Date: 11/15/2018
Final Round ISRP Date: 9/28/2018
Final Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
Final Round ISRP Comment:

1. Objectives

As the proponents note, the vast majority of steelhead reared in the Columbia Basin are released as one-year old smolts. In nature, steelhead typically become smolts after 2 or 3 years of freshwater rearing. The proponents hypothesize that the high growth rates experienced by age-1 smolts likely contribute to maladaptive traits and may ultimately be responsible for reduced fitness in hatchery steelhead. The overarching goal of this project is to evaluate the genetic, physiological, and life history impacts of rearing one- and two-year-old steelhead smolts.

Eight clearly defined objectives that are quantifiable, testable, and relevant to the Council’s Program were developed to accomplish the project’s overall goal. These objectives led the proponents to: (a) compare the survival and migration rates of age-1 and age-2 steelhead smolts in the mainstem, (b) determine the percentage of released age-1 and age-2 smolts that residualize in freshwater, (c) evaluate the ecological effects of residual steelhead produced from both types of smolts on natural steelhead populations, (d) assess the smoltification status of each type of smolt via saltwater challenges, (e) compare the reproductive fitness of adults produced from age-1 and age-2 smolts in an observation stream, (f) determine the breeding success of mature residual males produced from age-2 smolts, (g) evaluate possible epigenetic effects on gamete quality in male and female steelhead produced from age-1 and age-2 hatchery smolts, and (i) develop a life cycle model that compares the survival of age-1 and age-2 smolts at four periods in the life cycle—from hatchery release to spawning adult. Each of these objectives has clearly defined end dates.

The 2018 research narrative and annual reports are organized around hypotheses that address the critical uncertainties listed in the Council’s Uncertainties Database. The emphasis on addressing uncertainties in the research narrative is appreciated by the ISAB/RP. Explicitly listing null hypotheses to be tested experimentally also helps to track and evaluate progress.

2. Methods

Annual reports and the project’s peer-reviewed publications indicate that appropriate experimental designs and statistical analyses are being employed. Additionally, innovative behavioral and physiological assays are being used by the project to address its objectives.

3. Results

Experiments have been successfully conducted to meet the project’s objectives and test hypotheses. Critical uncertainties in the Council’s 2017 Research Plan were carefully linked to the project’s objectives. Additionally, suggestions on the how the project could, with added resources or supplemental data, provide additional information related to these uncertainties were also made.

The project is evaluating questions that are designed to help improve the artificial culture of steelhead. Results to date have indicated that natural origin broodstock can be used, that it is possible to rear and release age-2 smolts on a production basis, and that clear differences exist in the behavior, survival, and physiology of age-1 and age-2 steelhead smolts and in the adults produced from those smolts. All these results are directly related to how steelhead hatcheries could be managed in the future. An example of how the results of this study may guide future hatchery operations is the suggestion that hatcheries should be using natural origin broodstock and rearing and releasing both age-1 and age-2 smolts. The proponents report that fish destined to smolt at age 1 or 2 can be separated soon after ponding, making it possible for facilities to segregate and rear fish smolting at these two different ages.

However, one possible consequence of releasing age-1 and age-2 smolts that was not addressed in the research narrative or annual reports is the possible effect that this strategy may have on the overall fecundity of an integrated population. Adults originating from age-2 smolts typically return as adults after only 1 year at sea whereas age-1 smolts generally spend 2 years at sea. This difference in marine age would presumably cause females originating from age-2 smolts to be smaller, and to possibly have smaller or fewer eggs than those produced from age-1 females. Would such differences affect the overall productivity of an integrated hatchery population that released age-1 and age-2 smolts? The benefits of releasing both age-1 and age-2 smolts will be evaluated over the next several years at the Winthrop National Fish Hatchery.

Project results and key findings have been published in the peer-reviewed literature, in annual reports, and presented at conferences as well as in presentations to the Council.

4. 2017 Research Plan uncertainties validation

The Council’s 2017 Research Plan’s database indicates that the project is directly assessing Fish Propagation uncertainties 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.5 as well as potentially providing data and information on three (1.1, 1.2, and 3.6) uncertainties in the Population Structure and Diversity category. The proponent’s narrative shows how their project is providing information on all these uncertainties.

Documentation Links:
Review: 2019-2021 Mainstem/Program Support

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-NPCC-20210312
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: 2019-2021 Mainstem/Program Support
Proposal: NPCC19-1993-056-00
Proposal State: Pending Council Recommendation
Approved Date: 8/25/2019
Recommendation: Implement
Comments: Continue implementation, considering ISRP comments. Sponsor to submit to Council a report including a timeline for current and anticipated research by September 30, 2020, ahead of the 2021 Habitat and Hatchery Review. The report will also be considered by the ISRP and Council ahead of the review to assess and ensure value-added to the program- funded hatchery programs. See Programmatic issues for Hatchery-related work and for Research projects.

[Background: See https:/www.nwcouncil.org/fish-and-wildlife/fish-and-wildlife-program/project-reviews-and-recommendations/mainstem-review]

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-ISRP-20190404
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: 2019-2021 Mainstem/Program Support
Proposal Number: NPCC19-1993-056-00
Completed Date: None
First Round ISRP Date: 4/4/2019
First Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
First Round ISRP Comment:

Comment:

A long-standing challenge in the Basin and elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest has been how to best use hatcheries in steelhead conservation and supplementation programs. Results from numerous studies have indicated that steelhead exposed to standard hatchery practices experience morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic changes. This inadvertent domestication has reduced the value of using hatcheries as a conservation tool for steelhead recovery. Mainly, this is because when allowed to spawn under natural conditions, hatchery-origin fish and their offspring have reduced fitness when compared with natural counterparts.

This project is designed to provide information on whether hatchery culture coupled with natural steelhead growth patterns, behavior, and physiology, can limit domestication effects. The central approach presented in the proposal (i.e., the separation of slow-growing and fast-growing juveniles at an early age into age-2 and age-1 smolts) represents a substantial shift from standard practices. The comprehensive assessments and experiments described in the proposal will help determine the usefulness of this approach. Importantly too, the project will help elucidate the mechanisms responsible for domestication and provide insights into how or whether inadvertent domestication can be alleviated when steelhead are artificially reared.

1. Objectives, Significance to Regional Programs, and Technical Background

This project has three clearly described implementation objectives: (1) improve survival and reduce fitness loss, (2) reduce domestication selection, and (3) optimize hatchery steelhead programs through the use of natural origin broodstock.

The proponents are examining ways to reduce the effects of domestication by altering rearing procedures and choice of broodstock. Current investigations are evaluating the benefits and risks associated with rearing and releasing age-1 and age-2 steelhead smolts. Splitting of juveniles into these two rearing trajectories is based on broodstock maturation timing, hatchery thermal regimes, and the early growth patterns of juveniles. It is hypothesized that such splits will reduce residualism, precocious maturation, and generally reduce inadvertent domestication. A suite of laboratory and field studies are proposed to identify the underlying causes of domestication and help determine whether it can be reduced by management actions. If these approaches are shown to be effective, that could substantially change how steelhead are bred, reared, and released from the Basin's hatcheries and elsewhere.

Timelines for completion of studies, evaluations, and results are provided. Results will become available over the next several years. A production-scale study that releases age-1 and age-2 steelhead smolts began in 2018 at the Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. Rates of smoltification, precocious development, and survival through the Columbia River will be compared in release years 2020-2023. SARs and an examination of the effects of smolt age on fecundity will be assessed as adults from the rearing treatments return to the hatchery.

The objectives and anticipated results of the project coincide with a number of the goals presented in the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program.

2. Results and Adaptive Management

Investigations carried out by the project have been successfully completed. Results to date have shown that: (a) natural-origin steelhead can be used as broodstock in hatchery programs, (b) a hatchery can rear and release age-2 steelhead smolts on a production basis, and (c) differences exist in the post-release survival, behavior, physiology, and marine age, in age-1 and age-2 smolts and the adults produced from these fish. The proponents have linked their proposed studies directly to uncertainties in the Fish Propagation (uncertainties 1.1., 1.2, 1.3, and 1.5) and indirectly to uncertainties in the Population Structure and Diversity (1.1, 1.2., and 3.6) categories in the Council's 2017 Research Plan.

The project has revealed both biological benefits and costs associated with releasing age-1 versus age-2 smolts. Although migration speed and survival through the mainstem was higher, precocious maturation was more prevalent in age-2 than age-1 smolts. Age-2 smolts had substantially higher survival rates in sea-water challenge tests suggesting they were more highly smoltified than age-1 smolts. Consequently, it is likely that age-2 smolts achieve higher survivals during the freshwater/seawater transition period in the estuary. On the other hand, adult males produced from age-1 smolts were more aggressive and produced more offspring than males originating from age-2 smolts. The proposal provides a comprehensive overview of these and other project findings and indicates how project results and data have informed their future work plans.

The proponent's studies are directed toward upper Columbia summer steelhead. However, the methods and findings produced from the study will be of interest to all who culture and release steelhead, whether within or outside of the Columbia River Basin.

Results of the project have been presented at conferences, to the Council, and in the peer-reviewed literature.

3. Methods: Project Relationships, Work Types, and Deliverables

The proposal describes the studies and methods that will be used to complete the project's six deliverables. Linkages between the deliverables and the project's three overarching objectives are shown. Citations to the PNAMP methods that will be used to complete each deliverable are clearly delineated. Monitoring and evaluation protocols are in place to determine if the project is completing deliverables as planned.

Hypotheses directly linked to uncertainties in the Council's 2017 Research Plan are presented. Work that the project has completed relating to each of these hypotheses is described along with the future actions that will be used to test each hypothesis. Completion dates for when the work will be completed are generally described in the proposal. Peer-reviewed publications have been produced by the project and several are currently under review. It is anticipated that new findings from the project will be shared via presentations and additional publications.

Documentation Links:
Review: Fast Track ISRP Review 2010

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-ISRP-20100623
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: Fast Track ISRP Review 2010
Completed Date: None
First Round ISRP Date: 2/24/2010
First Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria
First Round ISRP Comment:

The project would no longer address captive broodstocks of endangered Chinook, and the ISRP assumes that the earlier work of the project has been wound down or wound up—but it’s not explicit in the proposal. The previous work has had a considerable influence on hatchery management due to the project’s timely, rigorous record of reporting results. By investigating a radical change in historical salmon hatchery practice—production of older, age 2 smolts—in an effort to integrate hatchery populations with natural populations in a way that minimizes effects on natural populations this research would make a useful contribution to hatchery reform. However, as the ISRP noted in its 2007 review, an array of incrementally achievable improvements of fitness over traditional hatchery methods may not add up to a workable strategy for restoration through integrated hatchery programs. The proposed research would not be a holistic examination of hatchery reform. Such incremental improvements of fitness in hatchery-origin salmon might not ameliorate, and indeed might exacerbate, detrimental effects on naturally reproducing populations, such as the effects described on coastal Oregon coho in Biol. Conserv. 142:2249. What would be the improvement in survival likely to be realized from this reformed practice? Would it have practical benefit? 1. Technical Justification, Program Significance and Consistency, and Project Relationships The project's components are being proposed within the context of hatchery reform. The project's three primary objectives are focused on research aimed at comparing the efficacy and effectiveness of steelhead smolts released in their second year (S2) as opposed to current approaches that release smolts in their first year (S1). The objectives focus on relative fitness responses, domestication, and physiology. The proposed work is at an operational scale will benefit from collaboration and cost-sharing with USFWS (WNFH), USGS, and NOAA (NWFSC/MS). The coordination, collaboration, and cost-sharing with other agencies and participants are an important requirement for the success of this project's broader goals and individual work elements. For example, a key part of evaluating the relative performance of the S2 v. S1 strategies is the mark and recapture monitoring by collaborators. As the proponents note coordination with Project 201003300 in particular will be crucial to the success of this research. 2. Project History and Results Previous work undertaken within the project has had considerable influence on hatchery management due to its strong record of reporting results. The project reports consistent annual accomplishments providing information aimed at the key uncertainties identified for the project. The proposed work would change the project to focus on hatchery culture of steelhead, under a new team of researchers. 3. Objectives, Work Elements, and Methods The project identifies three primary objectives 1) testing the efficacy/effectiveness of S2 smolts for increasing population fitness; 2) evaluating suites of behavioral traits altered by domestication; and 3) evaluating physiological indicators for abundances of precocial males. Each of the three have been often identified as important and are consistent with identified RPAs; however, the proposers do not make the case that these are the only or most important uncertainties for the role of integrated supplementation in UCB steelhead conservation, restoration, and management. Omitted in the design is the inclusion of some kind of "wild" production reference. The ISRP recognizes the complexity and technical challenges such inclusion would require, yet for some of the data sets including such a reference set would be appropriate (e.g., age-dependent growth, residualism rates, smolt age patterns, jacking rates, and such).

Documentation Links:
Review: RME / AP Category Review

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-NPCC-20110502
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal: RMECAT-1993-056-00
Proposal State: Pending BPA Response
Approved Date: 6/10/2011
Recommendation: Fund (Qualified)
Comments: Implement through 2014 per April-May 2010 decision document for Fast Track projects: Implementation beyond 2014 based on ISRP and Council review of the results report and recommendation of future work. Implementation subject to regional hatchery effects evaluation process described in programmatic recommendation #4.
Conditions:
Council Condition #1 Programmatic Issue: RMECAT #4 Hatchery Effectiveness—subject to regional hatchery effects evaluation process
Council Condition #2 Programmatic Issue: RMECAT #6 Research projects in general—.

2008 FCRPS BiOp Workgroup Assessment

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-BIOP-20101105
Project Number: 1993-056-00
Review: RME / AP Category Review
Proposal Number: RMECAT-1993-056-00
Completed Date: None
2008 FCRPS BiOp Workgroup Rating: Response Requested
Comments: BiOp Workgroup Comments: Please identify:
1. Why your data is "not electronically available"; and
2. What data sets will not be "electronically available" for various deliverables. Please specify the deliverable that is not electronically available. (Note a data set includes the raw data collected and additional data on analysis). For example if there is a deliverable for population adult abundance or habitat, we expect your raw and synthesized data to be made available electronically.
- Your response may help BPA identify funding needs for data repositories or identify an existing data warehouse that your data could be stored.

The BiOp RM&E Workgroups made the following determinations regarding the proposal's ability or need to support BiOp Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) RPAs. If you have questions regarding these RPA association conclusions, please contact your BPA COTR and they will help clarify, or they will arrange further discussion with the appropriate RM&E Workgroup Leads. BiOp RPA associations for the proposed work are: (63.2 64.2)
All Questionable RPA Associations ( ) and
All Deleted RPA Associations ( )
Proponent Response:

 

1. Deliverable Title: Improve survival and reduce fitness loss in Columbia River steelhead smolts (Winthrop National Fish Hatchery Experiment). 

 

These data will be publically available through the PITAGIS website (www.ptagis.org/ptagis/index.jsp).

 

2. Deliverable Title: Identify behavioral and physiological traits under selection through laboratory-scale research. 

 

These data will be generated from laboratory-scale experiments.  Raw and synthesized data will be stored in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets maintained on personal computers operated by NOAA scientists.  There is currently no public repository for this type of data.  However, the data can be made available through a request to the project lead.

 

3. Deliverable Title: Validate endocrine and genomic markers.

 

These data will be generated from laboratory-scale experiments.  Raw and synthesized data will be stored in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets maintained on personal computers operated by NOAA scientists.  There is currently no public repository for this type of data.  However, the data can be made available through a request to the project lead.

 

Our intention is to publish synthesized data generated from each work element in the peer-reviewed literature.  As such it will be electronically available.  Additional data will be contained in technical project annual reports which will be electronically available through BPA websites (https://efw.bpa.gov/IntegratedFWP/technicalreports.asp).

 

Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review

Council Recommendation

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-NPCC-20090924
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Approved Date: 10/23/2006
Recommendation: Fund
Comments: Reduce the work elements to priority elements.

Independent Scientific Review Panel Assessment

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-ISRP-20060831
Project: 1993-056-00 - Advance Hatchery Reform Research
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 8/31/2006
Final Round ISRP Date: None
Final Round ISRP Rating: Meets Scientific Review Criteria (Qualified)
Final Round ISRP Comment:
Although the various components of this complex project will all provide valuable results, the ISRP wishes to express its concerns. A strategy of increasing the costs over time to support research to learn about hatchery reform may result only in incrementally small changes in the nature of the hatchery product. "Hatchery reform" is an endpoint that still may fall short of producing hatchery-origin fish whose integration with wild populations would not cause significant fitness decreases.

Technical and scientific background: This is a huge project, which makes its review cumbersome and difficult. It takes some review effort just to determine how all of the components fit together and are coordinated, especially how all of them fit in with various monitoring and evaluation (M&E) efforts to assess success. The multiple components fit into these five objectives:

1. Maintain adaptive life history strategies in hatchery Chinook salmon;
2. Improve olfactory imprinting and reduce straying in hatchery salmon;
3. Use environmental factors to match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye reared in hatchery supplementation programs;
4. Improve Fish Health and Quality by Prevention and Treatment of Bacterial Kidney Disease; and
5. Identify genetic and environmental factors influencing male precocity and fitness in hatchery Chinook salmon.

The technical and scientific background used to set up the objectives and the entire proposal is very extensive.

Rationale and significance to subbasin plans and regional programs: This multi-faceted project has clear significance to hatchery reform, which is critical to continued use of this technology as a management tool. The rationale and significance are laid out well - by objective - and explain how each relates to the 2004 APRE, the 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program, the 2004 BiOp, and the 2006 Council's Draft Research Plan.

Relationships to other projects: The linkages to other projects are evident in the proposal.

Project history: The past accomplishments are well summarized and demonstrate how the project has evolved over time.

Objectives: The biological objectives are extensive, but largely task oriented. An overarching biological objective is needed.

Tasks (work elements) and methods: The methods are detailed and useful, although we question the value of the experiments on determining the consequences of inbreeding. While quantifying the consequences of inbreeding would be beneficial, it is well recognized that inbreeding is to be avoided. The provided methods are extraordinarily detailed and complete, almost more than a reviewer can deal with.

Monitoring and evaluation: This project is more experimental in nature than on-the-ground. So, data analysis and interpretation are more appropriate terms here. As such, that activity is documented well.

Facilities, equipment, and personnel: The facilities, equipment and personnel are excellent in all regards.

Information transfer: This is outlined adequately; project proponents have published in the peer reviewed literature and presented at regional and national conferences.

Benefits to focal and non-focal species: The results of the proposed research would likely decrease the negative impact of artificial production programs on natural populations. This project should do little harm to non-focal species, and some findings may translate to other species.
Documentation Links:

Legal Assessment (In-Lieu)

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-INLIEU-20090521
Project Number: 1993-056-00
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 10/6/2006
In Lieu Rating: Problems May Exist
Cost Share Rating: 3 - Does not appear reasonable
Comment: General RM&E regarding hatchery programs; fishery managers authorized/required; need confirmation that cost share is reasonable.

Capital Assessment

Assessment Number: 1993-056-00-CAPITAL-20090618
Project Number: 1993-056-00
Review: FY07-09 Solicitation Review
Completed Date: 2/27/2007
Capital Rating: Does Not Qualify for Capital Funding
Capital Asset Category: None
Comment: None

Project Relationships: None

Name Role Organization
Chris Tatara Project Lead National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Lisa Renan (Inactive) Interested Party Bonneville Power Administration
Barry Berejikian Supervisor National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Robert Shull Env. Compliance Lead Bonneville Power Administration
Cyndy Masada Administrative Contact National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Sandra Mezger (Inactive) Administrative Contact National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
David Kaplowe Supervisor Bonneville Power Administration
Martin Allen Project SME Bonneville Power Administration
Verl Miller Project Manager Bonneville Power Administration